Monthly Archives: January 2014

A Pedestrian Call to Arms: A Manifesto

By Dom Nozzi 

Each year, America experiences an outrageous carnage due to car crashes. In 2011, 4,432 pedestrians were killed and 69,000 were injured in traffic crashes.

Such bloodshed is incompatible with a civilized society. Are we too barbaric to do what is necessary to end this slaughter? Will we continue to blame the victim?

For several decades, there have been organized advocacy groups for bicycling. For transit. For environmental conservation. For local businesses.

But there is no group lobbying for the needs of pedestrians.

This is very bad news for the health of cities, because particularly in a town center, the pedestrian is the design imperative.

Below is a manifesto I have written that I hope is a step toward rectifying this ruinous disregard for the pedestrian.

 A Pedestrian Manifesto

Our community strives to protect and promote a walkable lifestyle as its design imperative. We believe that future development in areas of our community intended to be walkable should make walkability the primary emphasis of design. It is the lynchpin for the quality of life in the walkable areas of our community, for a quality transit system, for safety, for travel choice, for affordability, for human scale, for civic pride, for sustainability, for public health, for environmental conservation, and for the protection and enhancement of property values.Amsterdam ped st

Given these overwhelmingly beneficial outcomes for a walkable community, we have adopted the following manifesto which, to the extent possible, should be followed in all actions taken by the public and private sector for projects in the areas that out community intends to preserve and promote as walkable.

Most imperatively, improving walkability (and civic pride, comfort, convenience and sociability) means scaling down spaces in places we intend to be walkable. This “human-scaled” need acknowledges that in American cities, our walkability problem is that we have TOO MUCH space. Too much distance. Not that we have too much in the way of parks or squares or plazas or other “open spaces,” but that we have buildings that are set back too far from sidewalks. Too many “sea of asphalt” parking lots. Roads that contain too many travel and turn lanes. Too much distance between the home both neighbors and the corner store.

Our first and most important task for creating the walkability that people the world over love in places like Rome, Siena, Paris, and Venice, is to create human-scaled city spaces – particularly in our town centers. A large number of roads need to be put on a “road diet” by removing travel lanes and calming down (slowing) the speed of cars so that streets are welcoming, safe and sociable. Buildings need to be pulled up to the streetside sidewalk. Parking lots need to be shrunk in size—preferably by replacing some of them with active buildings, and moving more of them to on-street parking spaces. Streets need to be gracefully enveloped by street trees. Houses need to be mixed with shops and offices.

Most of these design practices were followed for most of human history (in America, up until approximately World War II). It is time to start returning to that tradition.

Neighborhood Streets

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. Streets should be two-way. Existing one-way streets should be restored to two-way operation.

B. Streets should be modest in width. Turning radii should be modest in size.NE 3rd and 4th

C. On-street parking should be encouraged to the extent possible over off-street parking.

D. Design speeds should be relatively modest.

E. Emergency service and public service vehicle needs should be secondary to the quality of life and life safety needs.

F. Particularly in areas affected by spillover parking, parking should be priced (metered) or allowed only by permit. Pricing should be calibrated for 85% occupancy, and the revenue returned to neighborhoods for neighborhood improvements.

Larger Regional and Main Streets

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. Streets should be a maximum of 3 lanes in size, and those which are larger should be reduced to 3 lanes.

B. To promote permeability and walkability, mid-block crossings should be designed at regular intervals in locations near walkable neighborhoods and in town centers.

C. Traffic signals are preferably post-mounted and should be relatively modest in height.

D. Design speeds should be relatively modest.

E. Turning radii for these streets should be relatively modest.clematis st reduced

F. On-street parking is the preferred form of parking, and parking meters used to achieve an 85% occupancy rate. Revenues from these meters should be used for the neighborhood where the meters are placed.

G. To the extent possible, these streets should contain raised, low-maintenance medians.

Street Lights

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. Street lights should be relatively modest in height and historic in character.

B. Street lights should be full cut-off.Best-Small-Towns-Galena-300x225

C. Street lights should maximize full color spectrum, such as Halogen.

D. Because they are the most invisible color in the landscape, street light structures (and other public equipment) should typically be black in color.

Sidewalks

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. As soon possible, the community should fill remaining sidewalk gaps in neighborhoods.

B. Sidewalk gap filling should be a significantly higher priority than sidewalk repair.Athens - 3-20-04

C. In town centers, the trajectory of sidewalks should be rectilinear rather than curvilinear.

Building Disposition in Town Centers

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. Buildings should butt up to the sidewalk, face the sidewalk with a main entrance, contain sufficient windows along the sidewalk, and have a first floor that is at least 10 feet in height.BethesdaHumanScale

B. Buildings should be parallel to the street, rather than rotated.

C. Buildings should be encouraged to be at least two stories in height and mixed in use (retail, office and residential).

D. High levels of building ornamentation should be encouraged.

E. Auto parking should never be in front of a building.

 Homeless Population

In general, because the homeless/panhandling population is an important impediment to walking, the following practices should be employed:

A. Minimize or reduce the number of free meals provided in town centers.

B. Enforce the “no sleeping in public parks” law.

C. Use park facilities that discourage sleeping.

D. Consider adopting a “no smoking” law for parks and other public spaces.

Street Trees

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. The community should install and maintain a dense, formally aligned, large, canopy trees along streets.

B. Trees of the same species or at least the same size and shape should be used along individual streets. Tree diversity should only be established, if necessary, from street to street.street trees (2)

C. Tree pruning along power lines should be consistent with practices described in “Trees in Urban Design,” by Henry Arnold (1985).

Parking

In general, the following principles shall be used:

A. To the extent possible, and as soon as possible, existing surface parking lots in and near town center neighborhoods should be converted to buildings.

B. Multi-family housing developments in and near walkable neighborhoods should “unbundle” the price of parking from the cost of the housing so that those who choose not to own a car are not forced to pay for expensive, unneeded, ugly, unwalkable parking.

C. Parking requirements should be relaxed in and near walkable neighborhoods. “Minimum” parking regulations for new development should be converted to “maximum” parking requirements, for example.

Summary

By adhering to these design guidelines, our community will be dramatically safer, more pleasant, more instilled with civic pride, more physically fit, more sustainable, more equitable, more affordable and more prosperous. These guidelines are essential if we ever hope to be able to dramatically reduce the utterly barbaric, unacceptable number of pedestrian injuries and deaths we experience each year.

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Is It a Good Idea to “Get Out the Vote”?

By Dom Nozzi

After reading Morris Berman’s The Twilight of American Culture (2000, 2006), I found myself asking:.

Is it a good idea to “get out the vote?” To work on voter registration drives to maximize the number of US citizens who vote?

Thomas Jefferson once said that “If we’re going to have a successful democratic society, we have to have a well educated and healthy citizenry.” Along these lines, he also stated that “Whenever the people are well-informed, they can be trusted with their own government.”

How well-informed are American citizens? Are they educated enough to enjoy a successful democracy? To be trusted with their own government?

The following information is cited by Berman’s book:

• 42 percent of American adults cannot locate Japan on a world map. (1997)

• 15 percent of American adults cannot locate the US on a map.

• 10 percent of all American voters, in October 1996, did not know who the Republican and Democratic nominees for president were (one of the questions traditionally asked in psychiatric wards as part of the test for sanity: “Who is the president of the US?”)

• 70 percent of Americans believe in the existence of angels.

• 50 percent of Americans believe in the presence of UFOs and space aliens on earth.

• 30 percent of Americans believe they have made contact with the dead.

• 40 percent of American adults do not know that Germany was our enemy in WWII.

• 58 percent of American high school seniors cannot understand a newspaper editorial in ANY newspaper.

• 50 percent of all students in America were unaware of the Cold War. (1995)

• 60 percent of all students in America had no idea of how the US came into existence. (1995)

• 59 percent of American teenagers cannot name the three branches of the US government, but 59 percent can name the Three Stooges. (1998)

• 98 percent of American teenagers cannot name the chief justice of the Supreme Court. (1998)

• 74 percent of American teenagers cannot name the Vice President of the US. (1998)

• 50 percent of American 17-year olds could not express 9/100 as a percentage. (early 1990s)

• 56 percent of all American adults believe that electrons are larger than atoms. (1995)

• 63 percent of all American adults believe that the earliest humans lived at the same time as dinosaurs (off by more than 60 million years, BTW). (1995)

• 53 percent of all American adults believe the earth revolves around the sun in a day or a month. (1995)

• 21 percent of all American adults believe the sun revolves around the earth. An additional seven percent said they did not know which revolved around which.

• Of the 158 countries in the United Nations, the US ranks 49th in literacy.

• 60 percent of all American adults have never read a single book in their lives. [I checked this shocking number on the Internet and it appears that this should state that 60 percent of all American adults have not read a single book AFTER HIGH SCHOOL.]

• 6 percent of all American adults read as much as a single book in a year.

• Among American readers age 21-35, 67 percent regularly read a daily newspaper in 1965. By 1998, it was 31 percent.

In 1998, the Massachusetts Board of Education instituted a literacy test for teachers, pegged at the level of an exam for a high school equivalency diploma. Of the 1,800 prospective teachers who took it, 59 percent failed. In response, the interim commissioner of education announced that the passing grade would be lowered.

It appears, from the above, that the last thing we should be doing is to “get out the vote.” An essential, unachieved task that Jefferson would urge us to engage in, before we “get out the vote,” is to first educate our population. Uneducated people, it seems likely, would vote against their own interests, or vote for those who are incapable of achieving the objectives of a healthy society.

I think that an important reason why fear is leveraged and used so significantly in America (both for candidates to get votes and to motivate people to buy things) is that Americans are so poorly educated and lazy (and watch too much TV). It is certainly true that in the 1930s, had a lot more people (especially poor people) voted, we would have elected communists and other left-wing items or candidates on the ballot. However, in contemporary times, low-income Americans are much more right wing than then, and would NEVER vote for a communist today (probably due, at least in part, to being a lot better educated in the 1930s).

I agree that education is not the only way to make better decisions. Education makes it more likely, but there is no certainty that this would be the case.

This is especially when it comes to, say, roads. Why? Because high subsidies means that even brilliant people think that wider roads are good.

My position on this issue, though, is that it seems important, if we are to have a healthy democratic society, that we have reasonably educated voters. I think our society is in big trouble if our population remains as ignorant as it is (particularly in comparison to other developed nations, and largely due to our relatively high religiosity and our anti-intellectual attitudes).

The political right in the US hit upon a brilliant political tactic in the Reagan years: get out the religious vote. We now see a lot of lower-income, poorly educated, blue collar people voting for the right wing issues and candidates. Curious, since the Republican agenda is rather openly pro-wealthy people and less supportive of lower-income people. In my view, this is at least partly because many lower-income folks are now single-issue voters: they use a narrow religious litmus test. It has been said that blue collar Catholics were largely responsible for electing Reagan and the Bushes (it is no coincidence that Reagan, in particular, nominated an enormous number of Catholics to top government posts).

In the book, Berman notes chilling parallels between the time at which the Roman Empire fell, and the US today. In both cases, there is extreme economic disparity between rich and poor. The middle class was significantly shrunk in size. The cost of bureaucracy and the military had become so enormous that in both cases, the government teeters on bankruptcy. Literacy and classical knowledge was replaced by a kind of New Age thinking (in the case of Rome, the classical knowledge lost was Greek learning, in the case of the US, the disparagement of learning from “dead white guys”).

Berman is nearly certain the US empire will collapse before the 22nd Century, and like monasteries that sheltered and bridged classical knowledge during the Dark Ages to protect it for future generations, he calls for a secular “monastic option” for contemporary times so that today’s storehouse of knowledge is protected from the coming decline into barbarism.

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